Catholic religious sisters, commonly (and inaccurately) called “nuns”, are a declining part of American life. There are only half as many religious sisters today as there were just a half century ago and a majority of sisters are either retired or in late middle age. This was not the case in mid-19th Century America, where, in the words of the leading historian of nursing sisters, “Catholic nuns were everywhere.” The sisters “ran corporations, dealt with national governments, journeyed on fact-finding missions crossing the country, indeed the world” at a time when most American woman were confined to the “domestic sphere.” 1
Most of these sisters were Irish immigrants.
Although the Irish were among the poorest people in Europe, Irish nurses in Ireland and in the diaspora in Britain, America, and Australia were able to take advantage of the transnational nature of the Catholic world to obtain medical training and organizational ideas. Many Irish nursing sisters trained in France or under Irish women who had trained there. French nuns had established some of the first hospitals in North America and the Irish sisters brought the same organizational zeal when they immigrated to the United States in the 1840s and 1850s.2
Catholic nuns had been a particular target of the Know Nothings and their anti-immigrant predecessors. The sisters filled public roles not ordinarily allowed to American women and they wore distinctive clothes that made them as noticeable in 19th Century America as traditional Muslim dress does today. The fact that they lived without husbands together in convents led to rumors that they were prostitutes or sex slaves. Organizing schools, orphanages, and hospitals, hiring male professionals to work for their institutions, these immigrant sisters “practiced a radical form of self-assertion through submission to religion,” in the words of their leading historian.3
Nuns founded 299 American hospitals between 1829 and 1900. These ranged the famous, like the Mayo Clinic and New York’s late lamented St. Vincent’s, to working class hospitals in Buffalo, Philadelphia, and Boston. In addition to the hospitals they started, nuns would form the nursing departments of important hospitals like the Baltimore Infirmary, the first university-affiliated teaching hospital in this country.4
When the Civil War broke out, the nursing sisters formed a cadre of trained nursing specialists already organized into disciplined structures. Unlike the upper class women who volunteered briefly as nurses , only to return home after a few months, the sisters did not have family obligations and they expected to nurse for the rest of their lives. The systematic training of sisters as nurses and administrators was “what separated the sisters from the rather motley group of enthusiastic amateur secular nurses” who came forward during the war, according to nursing historian Sioban Nelson. Nursing pioneer Florence Nightingale understood this, once saying “What training is there to compare with that of a Catholic nun” to teach a young woman perseverance and organizational skill. Surgeon General Hammond told Lincoln that the secular volunteer nurses organized by Dorothea Dix “cannot compare in efficiency and faithfulness with the Sisters of Charity.”5
600 nursing sisters served during the Civil War. They represented a fifth of all female nurses. Their heroic role was recognized in 1874 when President Ulysses S. Grant insisted that a nursing sister, Mother Josephine of the Dominican sisters, unveil the statue of Lincoln at Springfield, Illinois. In the 20th Century, a monument was erected in Washington to the “Nursing Nuns of the Battlefield.” We will meet more of these sisters in upcoming installments of The Immigrants’ Civil War.6
Nuns of the Battlefield Memorial near Du Pont Circle in Washington..
Video: Effective Medical Treatments
1. Say Little, Do Much: Nursing, Nuns, and Hospitals in the 19th Century by Sioban Nelson published University of Pennsylvania Press (2001) p. 4.
2. Say Little, Do Much: Nursing, Nuns, and Hospitals in the 19th Century by Sioban Nelson published University of Pennsylvania Press (2001) p. 4-9.
3.Say Little, Do Much: Nursing, Nuns, and Hospitals in the 19th Century by Sioban Nelson published University of Pennsylvania Press (2001) p. 13.
4.Say Little, Do Much: Nursing, Nuns, and Hospitals in the 19th Century by Sioban Nelson published University of Pennsylvania Press (2001) p. 32.
5.Say Little, Do Much: Nursing, Nuns, and Hospitals in the 19th Century by Sioban Nelson published University of Pennsylvania Press (2001) p. 25, 50-55; Dorothea Dix: New England Reformer by Thomas J. Brown published by Harvard (1998) p. 309.
6.Say Little, Do Much: Nursing, Nuns, and Hospitals in the 19th Century by Sioban Nelson published University of Pennsylvania Press (2001).
The Immigrants’ Civil War is a series that will examine the role of immigrants in our bloodiest war. Articles will appear monthly between 2011 and 2015, the 150th Anniversary of the Civil War. Here are the articles we have published so far:
1. Immigrant America on the Eve of the Civil War - Take a swing around the United States and see where immigrants were coming from and where they were living in 1861.
2. 1848: The Year that Created Immigrant America - Revolutions in Europe, famine and oppression in Ireland, and the end of the Mexican War made 1848 a key year in American immigration history.
3. Carl Schurz: From German Radical to American Abolitionist- A teenaged revolutionary of 1848, Carl Schurz brought his passion for equality with him to America.
5. ...And the War Came to Immigrant America -The impact of the firing on Fort Sumter on America’s immigrants
10. Immigrant Day Laborers Help Build the First Fort to Protect Washington-The Fighting 69th use their construction skills.
12. Immigrants Rush to Join the Union Army-Why?- The reasons immigrants gave for enlisting early in the war.
17. Immigrant Regiments on Opposite Banks of Bull Run -The Fighting 69th and the Louisiana Tigers
39. A German Regiment Fights for “Freedom and Justice” at Shiloh-The 32nd Indiana under Col. August Willich.
40. The Know Nothing Colonel and the Irish Soldier Confronting slavery and bigotry.
43. Union Leader Ben Butler Seeks Support in New Orleans-When General Ben Butler took command in New Orleans in 1862, it was a Union outpost surrounded by Confederates. Butler drew on his experience as a pro-immigrant politician to win over the city’s Irish and Germans.
49. The Irish Brigade Moves Towards Richmond-The Irish brigade in the Peninsula Campaign from March 17 to June 2, 1862.
50. Peninsula Emancipation: Irish Soldiers Take Steps on the Road to Freedom-The Irish Brigade and Irish soldiers from Boston free slaves along the march to Richmond.
54. Making Immigrant Soldiers into Citizens-Congress changed the immigration laws to meet the needs of a nation at war.
60. Emancipation 150: “All men are created equal, black and white”- A German immigrant reacts to the Emancipation Proclamation
The Harp and the Eagle: Irish American Volunteers and the Union Army, 1861 to 1865 by Susannah Ural Bruce
Jews and the Civil War: A Reader Edited by Jonathan Sarna and Adam Mendelsohn
Civil War Citizens edited by Susannah Ural Bruce
Germans in the Civil War: The Letters They Wrote Home edited by Walter Kamphoefner and Wolfgang Helbich
A World on Fire: Britain’s Crucial Role in the American Civil War By Amanda Foreman
Irish Green and Union Blue by Peter Welsh
Immigration Vacation -Civil War Sites
Fort Schuyler- Picnic where the Irish Brigade trained